Cinematography is a synthetic art form based on the technique of filming and editing. The emergence of cinema was preceded by the invention in the 80-90s of the XIX century. by the Lumiere brothers in France, an apparatus that “records movement”, later called a movie camera. Therefore, the hallmark of cinematography from the very beginning of its inception has been its dependence on complex cinematographic techniques.
Cinematography took a lot from other art forms.
The art of the film is literary creativity, directing and acting, camera and design principles, musical and noise accompaniment, the art of scenery, costumes, make-up, etc. Thus, the efforts of artists of different types of art are combined in the cinema. In addition to this, the art of cinema every year is increasingly dependent on engineering, and now computer-based, material investments. In specially equipped film studios, more than two hundred professions work on the creation of films. The creation, duplication, distribution of films is a huge area of modern industry and economy.
The technical side of film production requires significant material investments in film production. Therefore, among the various countries with film production, the United States ranks first in this respect, having a strong base in Hollywood and being able to attract huge funds for film production, distributing its products around the world.
The technical capabilities of cinema allow printing a huge number of copies of the film. The circulation of copies can reach several thousand copies, which makes it possible to show works of cinema at the same time in many cinemas, and the same copy of the film can be shown a large number of times. Thanks to this, the number of viewers of some films in a short period of time reaches several million, and over a number of years, tens of millions of people. This makes the art of cinema the most mass-produced, the most widespread art, possessing a huge impact force. The creative possibilities of this art form are very wide. In addition to traditional artistic and creative possibilities, modern cinema uses three-dimensional stereoscopic images. Today, various forms of the screen have been mastered (wide screen, synerama, panorama, etc.), and experiments are underway on a screen that changes its shape and size depending on the will of the director. Cinematography uses surround sound (stereophony). Television was a new form of presentation of films and further increased the mass character and general accessibility of cinema.
Movie classification has options. In a number of theoretical works, one can find the division of films into feature, documentary and animated films. In other works, the division is carried out in accordance with their classification as artistic, popular science, documentary chronicle.
Within each of the listed cinematographic genera there is its own genre system.
The literary basis of the script allows us to talk about epics, movie dramas, movie novels, movie stories, comedies, etc., since in any case the film begins with a script.
The creative atmosphere of filmmaking, rich in opportunities, has made many adjustments to the genre classification of cinema. The origins of such diversity are not only in the literary basis, cinematographic technique, but also in taking into account the psychology of the audience’s perception, in the aggressive need of filmmakers to exploit, develop (sometimes to the detriment of the mental health of the viewer) different genre variations of film production.
Among the film genres generated by a combination of modern economic, artistic and moral-psychological reasons, horror films, the founder of which is considered A. Hitchcock, can be named. Horror films are designed to exploit a wide variety of fears hidden in everyday life, stored in the deep layers of the subconscious. Thrillers are also classified as films of this genre. In them, the plot is based on the internal experiences of the characters, on creating an atmosphere of tension. As a rule, specially staged scenes and effects, demonstration of various psychological anomalies, etc. are used to amplify and escalate this tension.
A very common genre of action movie, including due to the small demands on the plot, the imagination of directors and screenwriters. In relation to this kind of films, the term “action” is used (English, action – action). The action film is distinguished by the presence of a simple plot, in the center of which is the confrontation between a good and a bad hero, an emphasis on entertainment, an abundance of stunts and special effects. Films on the theme of “exploring the Wild West (in the USA)” formed the “western” genre.
The detective genre in cinematography, as well as in literature, is based on the plot basis of the investigation of crimes. Movies with a fantastic plot are very diverse. Their genre nature is manifested not only in science fiction itself, but also in films gravitating towards the horror genre, films-kat